Gadolinium chelates can be utilized as a fluoroscopic contrast agent when iodinated contrast is contraindicated. However, the nephrotoxicity of gadolinium at radiographic doses limits its role as fluoroscopic contrast. Gadolinium chelate-enhanced digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is particularly limited by the kV of DSA, where gadolinium chelates are relatively more radiolucent. Flat panel detectors improve conspicuity of gadolinium chelates during DSA and should be employed where possible.
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Competing interests None.
Ethics approval This retrospective review was performed in accordance with IRB guidelines and approval at Emory University. All patients herein were treated at Emory University, and information compiled by the first author while at Emory University Hospital.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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