Introduction Convex spherical anamorphosis is a barrel distortion that consists of the application of a plane surface on a convex hemisphere. Applied in vascular imaging of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs), this deformation may help to ‘spread’ the nidus and surrounding vessels (arteries/veins) and thus to differentiate the different components of bAVMs more accurately.
Methods The imaging data from 15 patients (8 male, 7 female; 14 supratentorial bAVMs, 1 infratentorial) were used to test the algorithm. The algorithm was applied to three-dimensional rotational angiography (3D-RA) volume rendering reconstructions in anteroposterior, lateral and oblique views and compared with regular 3D-RA and DSA. Arterial feeder and draining vein count and quality visualization of the main draining vein and intranidal aneurysms were compared between the three imaging techniques.
Results Anamorphosis was able to depict more arterial feeders than 3D-RA alone (p=0.027). There was no statistically significant difference between 6 f/s DSA and anamorphosis for arterial feeder count. No difference was observed in draining vein count between the three imaging modalities. Visualization of the precise origin of the main draining vein was considered to be good in 67% of the cases with anamorphosis versus 47% and 33% for 6 f/s DSA and 3D-RA alone, respectively. Intranidal aneurysms were accurately depicted by anamorphosis (2 cases), whereas 6 f/s DSA and 3D-RA showed doubtful images in one and two additional cases, respectively, which were finally confirmed as focal venous ectasias on supraselective injection.
Conclusions Anamorphosis can help to visualize more precisely the main draining vein origin of the bAVM and depict more accurately intranidal aneurysms.
- Arteriovenous Malformation
- Vascular Malformation
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