Background Intra-arterial vasospasm therapy (IAVT) with vasodilators, balloon angioplasty, and cerebral blood flow augmentation devices are therapies for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced symptomatic cerebral vasospasm refractory to maximal medical management. Our aim was to identify clinical factors predictive of IAVT and/or poor outcome.
Methods A cross-sectional retrospective analysis was performed of 130 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage including patients without and with symptomatic cerebral vasospasm requiring IAVT. The data were analysed by Student t test, univariate analysis and binary logistic regression.
Results The mean±SD patient age was 54±12.2 years, admission hemoglobin was 13.6±1.5 g/dL, and neurologic intensive care unit (NICU) hemoglobin 11±1.4 g/dL. The median Hunt and Hess grade was 2 (range 1,4), Fisher grade 3 (range 3,3), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0.5 (range 0,2). Lower mean NICU hemoglobin was found in patients receiving IAVT than in those not receiving IAVT (M=10.4±0.9 g/dL vs M=11.2±1.4 g/dL, t(115)=−2.52, p=0.01). Further, lower mean NICU hemoglobin was associated with increased IAVT (ρ=−0.3, p<0.01) and higher discharge mRS (ρ=−0.5, p<0.01). In binary logistic regression, lower mean NICU hemoglobin was an independent predictor of IAVT (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, p<0.05) as well as poor discharge mRS (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, p<0.05). Hunt and Hess grade was also an independent predictor of these outcomes.
Conclusions Lower mean hemoglobin during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm is an independent predictor of IAVT and poor discharge mRS. This relationship warrants further evaluation.
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