Background Endovascular internal trapping is an effective procedure for the treatment of acute vertebral artery dissection (VAD). However, the outcomes of reconstructive treatment have not been well established. The aim of our study is to evaluate the long-term clinical and angiographic results of endovascular internal trapping or reconstructive treatment of acute VAD.
Methods Between 2005 and 2013, 26 patients with acute VAD were managed with internal coil trapping (n=10), stent-assisted coiling (n=14), stent only (n=1), and proximal occlusion (n=1). Stent-assisted coiling included the modified stent-assisted semi-jailing technique (n=10), balloon-in-stent technique (n=2), and coiling followed by balloon mounted stent (n=2). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in all patients except for three who died during the acute stage.
Results Of 26 patients with VAD, 14 and 12 presented with hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic types, respectively. The dominancy of the relevant artery was defined as dominant (n=9), even (n=12), and non-dominant (n=5). Reconstructive treatment was performed in six patients with ruptured VADs which failed balloon test occlusion and nine with non-hemorrhagic VADs. Clinical outcomes were favorable in 22 (84.6%), severe disability occurred in one, and there were three deaths (11.5%). All patients except the three who died had angiographic follow-up at 6–32 months (mean 10.4 months). The angiographic results of nine cases of internal trapping and one of proximal occlusion all showed a stable occlusion state. Among the 15 cases of reconstructive treatment, follow-up DSAs were available for the 13 surviving patients, 10 of which demonstrated stable occlusion of aneurysmal dilation and patent parent artery.
Conclusions This study suggests that internal trapping is a stable and effective treatment for acute VAD. Reconstructive treatment using stent and coils could also be a feasible alternative modality for hemorrhagic type VAD. However, serial DSA follow-up is essential.
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