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CASE REPORT
Flow diversion in vasculitic intracranial aneurysms? Repair of giant complex cavernous carotid aneurysm in polyarteritis nodosa using Pipeline embolization devices: first reported case
  1. Jaime Martinez Santos1,
  2. Zul Kaderali2,
  3. Julian Spears1,
  4. Laurence A Rubin3,
  5. Thomas R Marotta2
  1. 1Department of Neurosurgery, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  3. 3Department of Rheumatology, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jaime Martinez Santos, Department of Neurosurgery, St Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 1W8; jaime.lmartinez{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Intracranial aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are exceedingly rare lesions with unpredictable behavior that pose real challenges to microsurgical and endovascular interventions owing to their inflammatory nature. We introduce a safe and effective alternative for treating these aneurysms using Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs). A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss. Diagnostic evaluations confirmed PAN, including bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms. Cyclophosphamide and steroids achieved significant and sustained clinical improvement, with a decision to follow the aneurysms serially. Seven years later the left unruptured aneurysm enlarged, causing a sudden severe headache and a cavernous sinus syndrome. Treatment of the symptomatic aneurysm was pursued using flow diversion (PED) and the internal carotid artery was successfully reconstructed with a total of four overlapping PEDs. At 6 months follow-up, complete exclusion of the aneurysm was demonstrated, with symptomatic recovery. This is the first description of using a flow-diverting technique in an inflammatory vasculitis. In this case, PEDs not only attained a definitive closure of the aneurysm but also reconstructed the damaged and fragile arterial segment affected with vasculitis.

  • Aneurysm
  • Vasculitis
  • Flow Diverter

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