Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution, intra-vascular diagnostic technique widely used for the characterization of vascular pathologies and optimization of stent implantation during percutaneous coronary intervention. OCT was used to investigate the in vivo vascular response to a new phosphorylcholine surface modified flow diverter (sPED).
Methods In an in vivo rabbit aneurysmal model, we used two different types of flow diverters (classic Pipeline – cPED; and sPED) with or without dual antiplatelet therapy (four groups, n=10 per group). OCT cross-sectional area measurements were compared with histology in all animals. Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) ratio was compared between OCT and histology at five different levels for each stent. The severity of NIH was also compared between the different stents, antiplatelet protocols, and vessel locations.
Results OCT was used to calculate in-stent hyperplasia in 227 different locations corresponding to histology sections. OCT measurement strongly correlated with gold standard histology (r2=0.83; slope=0.988; P<0.0001). sPED had significantly less in-stent NIH than non-treated flow diverters (mean percent of lumen reduction 5.7% for sPED versus 8.9% for cPED; P<0.0001). The NIH ratio was slightly higher with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (NIH ratio=7.9% with DAPT versus 6.8% without DAPT; P<0.05). Complete and near complete occlusion rates of the aneurysms were not different with the cPED or sPED.
Conclusion OCT is a promising technique for immediate and long-term evaluation of flow diverter stent treatments. In an animal model, phosphorylcholine surface modified flow diverters induces less NIH after stent implant without reducing aneurysm occlusion rates.
- Intracranial aneurysm
- flow diverter
- optical coherence tomography
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