Isolated intraventricular hemorrhage due to dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is extremely rare and has been reported only a few times in the literature. The pathophysiological cause of isolated intraventricular hemorrhage in these cases was hypothetically attributed to retrograde venous flow into subependymal vessels, although none of these cases demonstrated radiographic evidence of such reflux. We present the first case of a dAVF with radiographic evidence of severe cortical venous reflux into the subependymal venous network causing isolated intraventricular hemorrhage, thus lending proof for the underlying pathophysiology. Furthermore, ours is the first case of dAVF with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage that was successfully treated using multimodality transvenous and transarterial embolization techniques. In cases of high-grade dAVF, multimodality treatment may offer the greatest chance for success, and should be strongly considered for management.
- liquid embolic material
- arteriovenous fistula
- intraventricular hemorrhage
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