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Original research
Augmented 3D venous navigation for neuroendovascular procedures
  1. Raphaël Blanc1,
  2. Robert Fahed1,
  3. Pascal Roux2,
  4. Stanislas Smajda1,
  5. Gabriele Ciccio1,
  6. Jean-Philippe Desilles1,
  7. Hocine Redjem1,
  8. Mikael Mazighi1,
  9. Humain Baharvahdat2,3,
  10. Michel Piotin1
  1. 1 Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris, France
  2. 2 Department of Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris, France
  3. 3 Neurosurgical Department, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
  1. Correspondence to Dr Raphaël Blanc, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Paris, France; rblanc29{at}


Background Endovascular venous access is increasingly used for the treatment of many cerebrovascular diseases. The quality of venous roadmapping through arterial injection can be problematic because of contrast media dilution, slow flow velocity, and unilateral opacification of the venous system.

Objective To describe our experience with the VesselNavigator (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) in performing live 3D roadmapping for intracranial venous procedures.

Material and methods Live 3D roadmapping is an image-processing technique that allows dynamic roadmapping of vessels with immediate adaptation to the C-arm movements without the need for contrast injection. For this purpose, 3D MR venography is overlaid on live fluoroscopy images after semiautomatic coregistration. The technique was applied to cases of idiopathic venous stenosis and arteriovenous fistula.

Results The process of coregistration was performed by the principal operator in <5 min, just before the treatment. The accuracy was controlled peroperatively and was judged satisfactory. Three illustrative cases demonstrate the use of this software for venous navigation and pressure measurement (case 1), venous stenting (case 2), and transvenous embolization of a carotid-cavernous fistula (case 3).

Conclusion Our preliminary experience suggests that it is a feasible and safe technique for intracranial venous navigation and procedures. The potential lowering of overall radiation dose and contrast media use needs to be verified with further studies.

  • magnetic resonance angiography
  • navigation
  • technique
  • intracranial pressure
  • arteriovenous malformation

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Hospital institutional review board.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement We are making available any additional unpublished images or movies of the procedures that are not presented here. These data are available upon request from the corresponding author.