Background and purpose Thoracolumbar and sacral spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (SEDAVFs) are an increasingly recognized form of spinal vascular malformation. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the demographics, clinical presentation and treatment results of thoracolumbar SEDAVFs.
Materials and methods Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched from January 2000 to January 2018 for articles on treatment of SEDAVFs. Pooled data of individual patients were analyzed for demographic and clinical features of SEDAVFs as well as treatment outcomes.
Results There were 125 patients from 11 studies included. Mean age was 63.5 years. There was a male sex predilection (69.6%). Sensory symptoms including pain or numbness were the most frequently presenting symptoms. Fistula location was the lumbosacral spine in 79.2% and the thoracic spine in 20.8%. Involvement of intradural venous drainage was more common than extradural venous drainage only (89.6% vs 10.4%). Of the 123 treated patients, endovascular therapy was performed in 67.5% of patients, microsurgery in 23.6%, and combined treatment in 8.9%. The overall complete obliteration rate was 83.5% and did not differ between groups. Clinical symptoms improved in 70.7% of patients, were stable in 25%, and worsened in 1.7% with no difference between treatment modalities.
Conclusions Thoracic and lumbosacral SEDAVFs often present with symptoms secondary to congestive myelopathy or compressive symptoms. Both endovascular and microsurgical treatments were associated with high obliteration rates and good clinical outcomes.
- arteriovenous malformation
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Contributors J-SB screened articles, collected data, drafted paper. He is guarantor. ACOT and CAH monitored data collection and revised the draft paper. PN collected data and revised the paper. Y-BF, TK, VMP, and GL supervised and revised the paper. WB screened articles, wrote the statistical analysis plan, and analyzed the data.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.