Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Imperative and invisible
  1. Michael Chen
  1. Correspondence to Dr Michael Chen, Department of Neurological Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; michael_chen{at}

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Editor’s Note: Please see Dr Randall Higashida’s memoriam of Dr Grant Hieshima on the homepage of the JNIS website. Dr Hieshima, who died on August 9, 2019, was a pioneer of neurointerventional surgery and a beloved mentor, friend, and inspiration to all of those fortunate to have known him. The memoriam also includes poignant tributes from many of Dr Hieshima’s colleagues, friends, and students.

A 2011 study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that, over a 10-month period, eight Jewish-Israeli judges made 1112 rulings on crimes of embezzlement, assault, theft, murder, and rape.1 The percentage of favorable rulings dropped from 65% to nearly zero during each session and then abruptly returned to around 65% after a food break. At the surface, these findings challenge the assumption that judges make rulings based solely on laws and facts. Could it be possible that judges trend towards more punitive decisions because they feel hungry?

The delivery of stroke thrombectomy involves many decisions based on incomplete information, including determining symptom onset, therapeutic approach, hospital transfer, necessity of imaging, history of pre-existing dependency, among others. For example, deciding whether to mobilize the team at 02:00 hours for a possible thrombectomy transfer with …

View Full Text


  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.