Image-based hemodynamic simulations to assess the rupture risk or improve the treatment planning of intracranial aneurysms have become popular recently. However, due to strong modeling assumptions and limitations, the acceptance of numerical approaches remains limited. Therefore, validation using experimental methods is mandatory.
In this study, a unique compilation of four in-vitro flow measurements (three particle image velocimetry approaches using a standard (PIV), stereoscopic (sPIV), and tomographic (tPIV) setup, as well as a phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) measurement) were compared with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. This was carried out in a patient-specific silicone phantom model of an internal carotid artery aneurysm under steady flow conditions. To evaluate differences between each technique, a similarity index (SI) with respect to the velocity vectors and the average velocity magnitude differences among all involved modalities were computed.
The qualitative comparison reveals that all techniques are able to provide a reasonable description of the global flow structures. High quantitative agreement in terms of SI and velocity magnitude differences was found between all PIV methods and CFD. However, quantitative differences were observed between PC-MRI and the other techniques. Deeper analysis revealed that the limited resolution of the PC-MRI technique is a major contributor to the experienced differences and leads to a systematic underestimation of overall velocity magnitude levels inside the vessel. This confirms the necessity of using highly resolving flow measurement techniques, such as PIV, in an in-vitro environment to individually verify the validity of the numerically obtained hemodynamic results.
- blood flow
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Contributors Conception and design: CR, PB. Acquisition and choice of aneurysm case: OB. Acquisition of PIV, sPIV, and tPIV data: CR. Acquisition of PC-MRI data: DS, CR. Conduction of CFD simulation: PB. Analysis and interpretation of data: CR, DS, OB, PB. Drafting the article: CR, PB. Critically revising the article: CR, DS, OB, PB.
Funding This work was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research within the Research Campus STIMULATE grant number ‘13GW0095A’.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement Processed data are available upon request from the corresponding author.