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Hemorrhagic transformation is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel occlusion


Background and purpose Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a complication that may cause neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Various radiological subtypes of HT can be distinguished. Their influence on functional outcome is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between HT subtypes and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients with proven large vessel occlusion included in the MR CLEAN trial (Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic stroke in The Netherlands).

Methods All patients with follow-up imaging were included. HT was classified on follow-up CT scans according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II classification. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset. Ordinal logistic regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders was used to determine the association of HT subtypes with functional outcome.

Results Of 478 patients, 222 had HT. Of these, 76 (16%) patients were classified as hemorrhagic infarction type 1, 71 (15%) as hemorrhagic infarction type 2, 36 (8%) as parenchymal hematoma type 1, and 39 (8%) as parenchymal hematoma type 2. Hemorrhagic infarction type 2 (adjusted common OR (acOR) 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.89) and parenchymal hematoma type 2 (acOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.78) were significantly associated with a worse functional outcome. Hemorrhagic infarction type 1 and parenchymal hematoma type 1 were not significantly associated, although their point estimates pointed in the direction of worse outcome.

Conclusion This study suggests that parenchymal hematoma type 2 is relevant for functional outcome after an acute ischemic stroke, and smaller HTs might also influence long term functional outcome.

Trail registration number ISRCTN10888758.

  • hemorrhage
  • stroke
  • thrombectomy
  • thrombolysis
  • complication

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