Background Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization is an emerging therapy for the resolution of subacute or chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). CSDH patients are often elderly and have several comorbidities. We evaluated our experience with transradial access (TRA) for MMA embolization using predominantly Onyx under conscious sedation.
Methods Data for consecutive patients who underwent transradial MMA embolization for CSDH during a 2-year period (2018–2019) were analyzed from a single-center, prospectively-maintained database. Patient demographics, comorbidities, ambulatory times, subdural hematoma resorption status, and guide catheter type were recorded. Conversion to femoral access and complication rates were also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Results Forty-six patients (mean age, 71.7±14.4 years) were included in this study. Mean CSDH size was 14±5.5 mm. Most (91.3%) TRA embolizations were performed with 6-French 0.071-inch Benchmark guide catheters (Penumbra). MMA embolization was successful in 44 patients (95.7%) (including two cases of TRA conversion). Twenty-one (48%) patients had a severe Charlson Comorbidity Index (>5). Symptomatic improvement was noted in 39 of 44 patients (88.6%). Mean length of stay was 4±3 days. Patients were ambulated immediately postprocedure. At mean follow-up (8±4 weeks), 86.4% of patients had complete or partial CSDH resolution. Persistent use of antiplatelet agents after the procedure was associated with failed or minimal CSDH resorption (5 of 6, 83.3% vs 9 of 38 23.7% with complete or near-complete resolution; P=0.009).
Conclusion Transradial Onyx MMA embolization under conscious sedation is safe and effective for CSDH treatment. TRA may be especially useful in elderly patients with numerous comorbidities.
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Contributors Conception and design: GBR, JMD, AHS, MW. Acquisition of the data: all authors. Analysis and interpretation of the data: all authors. Drafting the manuscript: GBR, MW. Critically revising the manuscript: all authors. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: all authors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests GBR, MW, RHD, KV, AG, KR, SBH, HHR, FC, MKT: NoneEIL: shareholder/ownership interests: NeXtGen Biologics, RAPID Medical, Claret Medical, Cognition Medical, Imperative Care (formerly the Stroke Project), Rebound Therapeutics, StimMed, Three Rivers Medical; National Principal Investigator/Steering Committees: Medtronic (merged with Covidien Neurovascular) SWIFT Prime and SWIFT Direct Trials; Honoraria: Medtronic (training and lectures); Consultant: Claret Medical, GLG Consulting, Guidepoint Global, Imperative Care, Medtronic, Rebound, StimMed; Advisory Board: Stryker (AIS Clinical Advisory Board), NeXtGen Biologics, MEDX, Cognition Medical, Endostream Medical; Site Principal Investigator: CONFIDENCE study (MicroVention), STRATIS Study—Sub I (Medtronic).AHS: financial interest/investor/stock options/ownership: Adona Medical, Inc, Amnis Therapeutics, (purchased by Boston Scientific October 2017), Blink TBI Inc., Buffalo Technology Partners Inc., Cerebrotech Medical Systems, Inc., Cognition Medical, Endostream Medical Ltd., Imperative Care, International Medical Distribution Partners, Neurovascular Diagnostics Inc., Q’Apel Medical Inc, Rebound Therapeutics Corp. (purchased 2019 by Integra Lifesciences, Corp), Rist Neurovascular Inc., Sense Diagnostics, Inc., Serenity Medical Inc., Silk Road Medical, Spinnaker Medical, Inc., StimMed, Synchron, Three Rivers Medical Inc., Vastrax, LLC, VICIS, Inc., Viseon Inc; consultant/advisory board: Amnis Therapeutics, Boston Scientific, Canon Medical Systems USA Inc., Cerebrotech Medical Systems Inc., Cerenovus, Corindus Inc., Endostream Medical Ltd., Imperative Care, Inc. Integra LifeSciences Corp., Medtronic, MicroVention, Minnetronix Neuro, Inc., Northwest University–DSMB Chair for HEAT Trial, Penumbra, Q’Apel Medical Inc., Rapid Medical, Rebound Therapeutics Corp.(purchased by Integra LifeSciences Corp.), Serenity Medical Inc., Silk Road Medical, StimMed, Stryker, Three Rivers Medical, Inc., VasSol, W.L. Gore & Associates; principal investigator/steering committee for the following trials: Cerenovus NAPA and ARISE II; Medtronic SWIFT PRIME and SWIFT DIRECT; MicroVention FRED & CONFIDENCE; MUSC POSITIVE; and Penumbra 3D Separator, COMPASS, INVEST, TIGER.KVS: consulting and teaching for Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Penumbra Inc., Medtronic, and Jacobs Institute. Co-founder: Neurovascular Diagnostics, Inc.JMD: Research grant: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under award number KL2TR001413 to the University at Buffalo. Consulting: Medtronic; Honoraria: Neurotrauma Science, LLC; shareholder/ownership interests: Cerebrotech, RIST Neurovascular. University at Buffalo Neurosurgery received an educational grant from Penumbra, Inc. However, the company had no editorial control.
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Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.