Angiographic stenosis may not be an accurate reflection of physiological flow limitation. Measurement of instant flow reserve (IFR) to quantify functional flow limitation across stenosis may be valuable in identifying lesions causing significant flow limitation. A case of left middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic disease is presented. Because medical therapy had failed, endovascular revascularization was chosen. In this video 1, IFR measurement to guide submaximal balloon angioplasty with a 1.5×9 mm non-compliant Mini-Trek balloon (Abbott) is demonstrated. Pressure gradient across the middle cerebral artery-M1 stenosis was measured with a Volcano pressure wire (Philips) before and after submaximal balloon angioplasty. An excellent radiographic result and flow improvement into the severely stenosed segment were achieved, with an IFR increase from 0.23 to 0.89. The degree of corresponding stenosis changed from 85% to 30%. No periprocedural complication was observed. IFR can help to identify lesions requiring treatment in select patients and prevent the tendency to overtreat a lesion that is not physiologically significant.
- blood flow
- intracranial pressure
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Contributors Conception and design: all authors; data acquisition: all authors; data analysis and interpretation: all authors; drafting the abstract: MW; preparing the video: RHD; critically revising the abstract and video: all authors; Final approval: all authors.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests RHD, MW, HHR, MKT, GBR, AS: none. AHS: financial interest/investor/stock options/ownership: Adona Medical, Inc, Amnis Therapeutics (purchased by Boston Scientific October 2017), Blink TBI Inc., Buffalo Technology Partners Inc., Cerebrotech Medical Systems, Inc., Cognition Medical, Endostream Medical Ltd., Imperative Care, International Medical Distribution Partners, Neurovascular Diagnostics Inc., Q’Apel Medical Inc, Rebound Therapeutics Corp. (purchased 2019 by Integra Lifesciences, Corp), Rist Neurovascular Inc., Sense Diagnostics, Inc., Serenity Medical Inc., Silk Road Medical, Spinnaker Medical, Inc., StimMed, Synchron, Three Rivers Medical Inc., Vastrax, LLC, VICIS, Inc., Viseon Inc. Consultant/advisory board: Amnis Therapeutics, Boston Scientific, Canon Medical Systems USA Inc., Cerebrotech Medical Systems Inc., Cerenovus, Corindus Inc., Endostream Medical Ltd., Imperative Care, Inc. Integra LifeSciences Corp., Medtronic, MicroVention, Minnetronix Neuro, Inc., Northwest University–DSMB Chair for HEAT Trial, Penumbra, Q’Apel Medical Inc., Rapid Medical, Rebound Therapeutics Corp.(Purchased by Integra LifeSciences Corp.), Serenity Medical Inc., Silk Road Medical, StimMed, Stryker, Three Rivers Medical, Inc., VasSol, W.L. Gore & Associates. Principal investigator/steering comment of the following trials: Cerenovus NAPA and ARISE II; Medtronic SWIFT PRIME and SWIFT DIRECT; MicroVention FRED & CONFIDENCE; MUSC POSITIVE; and Penumbra 3D Separator, COMPASS, INVEST.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.
Ethics approval The patient gave informed consent for the procedure and video recording. Institutional review board approval was deemed unnecessary. The Mini-Trek balloon is a coronary balloon and is off-label for this indication.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.