Background Although aspiration and stent retriever thrombectomy perform similarly in proximal occlusions, no comparative series are available in distal occlusions. We aimed to compare the 3 mm Trevo Retriever against the 3MAX thromboaspiration catheter in distal arterial occlusions.
Methods A single-center retrospective review of a prospectively maintained databank for patients treated with the 3 mm Trevo stent retriever or 3MAX thromboaspiration as the upfront approach for distal occlusions (middle cerebral artery mid/distal M2/M3, anterior cerebral artery A1/A2/A3 or posterior cerebral artery P1/P2) from January 2014 to July 2018 was performed. The primary outcome was the rate of distal occlusion first-pass reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 2b–3).
Results Of 1100 patients treated within the study period, 137 patients/144 different arteries were treated with the 3 mm Trevo (n=92) or 3MAX device (n=52). The groups had comparable demographics and baseline characteristics. There was a higher rate of first-pass mTICI 2b–3 reperfusion (62% vs 44%; p=0.03), a trend towards a higher rate of final mTICI 2b–3 reperfusion (84% vs 69%; p=0.05), and lower use of adjuvant therapy (15% vs 31%; p=0.03) with the 3 mm Trevo compared with the 3MAX. The median number of passes (p=0.46), frequency of arterial spasm (p=1.00), rates of parenchymal hematomas (p=0.22)/subarachnoid hemorrhage (p=0.37) in the territory of the approached vessel were similar across the two groups. The 90-day rate of good outcomes (45% vs 46% in the 3 mm Trevo and 3MAX groups, respectively; p=0.84) was comparable. Multivariable regression identified baseline NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8 to 0.97; p<0.01) and use of 3 mm Trevo (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.6; p=0.02) independently associated with first-pass mTICI 2b–3 reperfusion.
Conclusions In the setting of distal arterial occlusions, the 3 mm Trevo may lead to higher rates of first-pass reperfusion than direct 3MAX thromboaspiration. Lower NIHSS was found to be associated with improved reperfusion rates as observed in more proximal lesions. Further studies are warranted.
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