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Case report
Republished: A lumbar arteriovenous fistula presenting with intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus


Pediatric spinal vascular malformations are rare entities that typically present with symptoms from their effect on surrounding structures. Here we report a unique case of lumbar spinal dural/perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) that presented with intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. The previously healthy child presented with lethargy and headache, and initial imaging revealed only ventriculomegaly with trace intraventricular blood. His mental status improved with CSF diversion via an external ventricular drain. Further workup revealed a spinal AVF that was treated via endovascular embolization. His course was complicated by vasospasm requiring endovascular treatment and he eventually required ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. He made a full recovery and has returned to his normal activities. This is a unique case of spinal AVF presentation and highlights the importance of considering imaging of the entire neuroaxis during workup for hydrocephalus.

  • hydrocephalus
  • fistula
  • pediatrics

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