Background Recurrence of intracranial aneurysms after endovascular coiling is a serious clinical concern.
Objective We hypothesized that recurrence is associated with aneurysm morphology and flow, as well as the coil intervention and the induced flow modifications.
Methods We collected 52 primary-coiling aneurysm cases that were either occluded (n=34) or recurrent (n=18) at >1 year follow-up. We created aneurysm models from pre-coiling digital subtraction angiographic images, calculated aneurysm morphology, simulated pre-coiling hemodynamics, modeled coil deployment, and obtained post-coiling hemodynamics for each case. We performed univariable analysis on 26 morphologic, treatment-specific, and hemodynamic parameters to distinguish between recurrent and occluded groups, and multivariable analysis to identify independently significant parameters associated with recurrence. Univariable analysis was also performed on ruptured and unruptured aneurysm subcohorts separately to investigate if they shared specific significant parameters.
Results Recurrence was associated with pre-coiling aneurysm morphologic and flow parameters including larger size (maximum dimension and volume), larger neck (diameter, area, and neck-to-parent-artery ratio), and higher flow momentum and kinetic energy. Recurrence was also associated with lower coil packing (packing density and uncoiled volume), higher post-treatment flow (velocity, momentum, and kinetic energy), lower post-treatment washout time, and higher post-treatment impingement force at the neck. Multivariable analysis identified two aneurysmal characteristics (neck diameter and pre-coiling flow kinetic energy), one coil packing parameter (uncoiled volume), and one post-treatment hemodynamic parameter (flow momentum) that were independently associated with recurrence. In ruptured aneurysms, recurrence was associated with larger neck (diameter and area), whereas in unruptured aneurysms, recurrence was associated with larger size (maximum dimension and volume). In both subcohorts, recurrence was associated with higher post-coiling flow momentum and kinetic energy.
Conclusion Recurrence at >1 year after coil treatment is associated with intrinsic aneurysm characteristics, coiling itself, and flow changes induced by coiling. Larger aneurysm size and neck, less coil packing, and higher intra-aneurysmal flow before and after coiling predict recurrence.
- blood flow
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