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Review
Update on cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome

Abstract

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a clinical syndrome following a revascularization procedure. In the past decade, neurointerventional surgery has become a standard procedure to treat stenotic or occluded cerebral vessels in both acute and chronic settings, as well as endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. This review aims to summarize relevant recent studies regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of CHS as well as to highlight areas of uncertainty. Extracranial and intracranial cerebrovascular diseases in acute and chronic conditions are considered. The definition and diagnostic criteria of CHS are diverse. Although impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of CHS, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. Its clinical characteristics vary in different patients. The current findings on clinical and radiological presentation, pathophysiology, incidence, and risk factors are based predominantly on carotid angioplasty and stenting studies. Hemodynamic assessment using imaging modalities is the main form of diagnosis although the criteria are distinct, but it is helpful for patient selection before an elective revascularization procedure is conducted. After endovascular thrombectomy, a diagnosis of CHS is even more complex, and physicians should consider concomitant reperfusion injury. Management and preventative measures, including intensive blood pressure control before, during, and after revascularization procedures and staged angioplasty, are discussed in detail.

  • complication
  • hemorrhage
  • stent
  • stroke
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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Footnotes

  • Contributors All authors made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the study; acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of the data; drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and final approval of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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