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Review
Promoting endothelialization of flow-diverting stents: a review
  1. Kapilan Panchendrabose1,
  2. Sandeep Muram2,3,
  3. Alim P Mitha1,2,3
  1. 1 Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  2. 2 Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  3. 3 Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alim P Mitha, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada; amitha{at}ucalgary.ca

Abstract

Intracranial flow-diverting (FD) stents have revolutionized the treatment of intracranial aneurysms in recent years, but complications resulting from failed endothelialization can still occur. Approaches to promote endothelialization are understudied, but hold promise in mitigating both short- and long-term complications associated with FD stent insertion. The aim of this review is to highlight the various features of and modifications that have been made to FD stents in order to expedite endothelialization. More specifically, we focus on how endothelialization can be influenced by the stent design, wall apposition, surface modifications, and the inclusion of biological agents.

  • stent
  • stroke
  • aneurysm
  • bioactive
  • flow diverter
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Footnotes

  • Contributors KP was responsible for conception and design, acquisition, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting, revising, and final approval of the work. SM was responsible for design, acquisition, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting, revising, and final approval of the work. APM was responsible for conception and design, acquisition, analysis, interpretation of data, drafting, revising, and final approval of the work. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests APM reports being a shareholder and co-founder of Fluid Biotech Inc., during the conduct of the study; personal fees from Cerus Endovascular, grants from Stryker Neurovascular, personal fees from Microvention, outside the submitted work; in addition, APM has a patent PCT/CA2019/050304 pending to Fluid Biotech Inc.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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