Background There are no reports that describe complete flow control using concurrent transient rapid ventricular pacing or intravenous (IV) adenosine and afferent arterial balloon flow arrest to aid transvenous embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We describe our experience with the use of this technique in patients undergoing transvenous AVM embolization.
Methods Consecutive patients in whom transvenous embolization was attempted at our institute between January 2017 and July 2019 were included. Anatomical AVM features, number of embolization stages, technique of concurrent transient rapid ventricular pacing and afferent arterial balloon flow arrest, complications, and clinical and radiological outcomes were recorded and tabulated.
Results Transvenous AVM embolization was attempted in 12 patients but abandoned in two patients for technical reasons. Complete embolization was achieved in 10 patients, five of whom had infratentorial AVMs. All 10 had a single primary draining vein. Rapid ventricular pacing was used in nine cases; IV adenosine injection was used in one case to achieve cardiac standstill. Complete AVM nidus obliteration was achieved with excellent neurologic outcome in nine cases, with transvenous embolization alone in two cases, and with staged transarterial followed by transvenous embolization in the others. Two patients developed hemorrhagic complications intraprocedurally. One patient was managed conservatively and the other operatively with AVM excision and hematoma evacuation; both made an excellent recovery without any neurologic deficits at 3 months.
Conclusion Complete flow control using concurrent transient rapid ventricular pacing with afferent arterial balloon flow arrest technique is safe and feasible for transvenous embolization of select AVMs.
- arteriovenous malformation
- liquid embolic material
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