Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Original research
Safety of diagnostic spinal angiography in children
  1. Ayushi Gautam,
  2. Mina Motaghi,
  3. Philippe Gailloud
  1. Div Interventional Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Philippe Gailloud, Div Interventional Neuroradiology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore MD 21287, Maryland, USA; phg{at}


Background Spinal angiography (SA) is associated with low complications in adults but its safety in children has not been properly analyzed. The goal of our study is to assess the safety of pediatric SA.

Methods This study is the retrospective analysis of a series of 36 consecutive SA procedures performed in 27 children over a 5-year period. Parameters including neurological complications, non-neurological complications requiring additional management, contrast volume, and radiation exposure were analyzed via univariate and bivariate methods.

Results Our cohort included 24 diagnostic and 12 combined therapeutic cases in children with an average age of 11.1 years. No neurological or non-neurological complication requiring additional management was recorded. The average volume of contrast administered was 1.6 mL/kg in the diagnostic group and 0.9 mL/kg in the combined group. The average air kerma was 186.9mGy for an average of 36.8 exposures in the diagnostic group, and 264.5mGy for an average of 21 exposures in the combined group. Patients in the combined group had lower contrast load (45% lower on average) and higher air kerma (1.6 times higher on average). The difference in air kerma was due to a higher live fluoroscopy-related exposure.

Conclusions This study reports the largest pediatric SA cohort analyzed to date and the only one including radiation dose and contrast load. It confirms that pediatric SA is a safe imaging modality with low risk of complications, and demonstrates that SA can be performed in children with low radiation exposure and contrast load.

  • angiography

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors AG gathered data for the study, reviewed pertinent literature from the field, reviewed and analyzed the data, and drafted and revised the paper. MM formulated statistical analysis plans and performed statistical analysis of the data. PG guided the collaborative project from its inception, monitored data collection and analysis, and drafted and revised the paper. PG is the guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests Unrelated to the study submitted. PG is a consultant for Cerenovus and a recipient of research grant money (paid to the institution) from Siemens Medical.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval All studies were routine clinical studies for which written informed consent was obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.