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Effects of acute angle, proximal bending, and distal bending in the deployment vessels on incomplete low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) expansion: an in vitro study


Background A low-profile visualized intraluminal support (LVIS) device may incompletely expand during stent deployment in tortuous vessels. However, the cause of incomplete expansion remains uninvestigated. We aimed to examine in vitro the factors causing incomplete expansion in LVIS deployment by using various vessel models.

Methods A linear model group was created by connecting linear silicone tubes (inner diameter 4 mm) at both sides of the LVIS deployment vessel (inner diameter 4 mm) with different curvature angles of 10–140° at 10° intervals. For comparison, proximal and distal bending model groups were created, both with 90° bending on the proximal/distal larger curvature side of the deployment vessel. A single operator macroscopically deployed an LVIS (4.5×32 mm) four times in each model and 56 times in each group.

Results In each model group the LVIS deployment vessel with a narrow curvature angle incompletely expanded. Incomplete expansion occurred significantly more frequently in the distal bending model group (34%, 19/56) compared with that in the linear model group (14.3%, 8/56; p<0.001), as well as in the proximal bending model group (59%, 33/56) compared with that in the distal bending model group (p<0.05). Compared with the linear model group, the proximal bending model group had a significantly reduced angle between the LVIS and the direction of the LVIS pushing force, but no significant change was found in the distal bending model group compared with that in the linear model group.

Conclusions Factors such as acute angle, distal bending, and proximal bending of the deployment vessel can cause incomplete LVIS expansion.

  • stent
  • aneurysm
  • catheter
  • device

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request. The datasets analyzed in this manuscript are not publicly available. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to

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