Background Although the liquid embolic agent, Onyx, is often the preferred embolic treatment for cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), there have only been a limited number of single-center studies to evaluate its performance.
Objective To carry out a multicenter study to determine the predictors of complications, obliteration, and functional outcomes associated with primary Onyx embolization of DAVFs.
Methods From the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database, we identified patients who were treated for DAVF with Onyx-only embolization as the primary treatment between 2000 and 2013. Obliteration rate after initial embolization was determined based on the final angiographic run. Factors predictive of complete obliteration, complications, and functional independence were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression models.
Results A total 146 patients with DAVFs were primarily embolized with Onyx. Mean follow-up was 29 months (range 0–129 months). Complete obliteration was achieved in 80 (55%) patients after initial embolization. Major cerebral complications occurred in six patients (4.1%). At last follow-up, 84% patients were functionally independent. Presence of flow symptoms, age over 65, presence of an occipital artery feeder, and preprocedural home anticoagulation use were predictive of non-obliteration. The transverse-sigmoid sinus junction location was associated with fewer complications, whereas the tentorial location was predictive of poor functional outcomes.
Conclusions In this multicenter study, we report satisfactory performance of Onyx as a primary DAVF embolic agent. The tentorium remains a more challenging location for DAVF embolization, whereas DAVFs located at the transverse-sigmoid sinus junction are associated with fewer complications.
- liquid embolic material
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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Contributors Conception: RMS. Data acquisition: all authors. Statistical analysis: YL. Drafting and critical revisions: all authors. Final approval and agreement to accountability: all authors.
Funding This research is in part supported by National Institutes of Health (R01NS111119-01A1) and (UL1TR002736, KL2TR002737) through the Miami Clinical and Translational Science Institute.
Competing interests RMS research is supported by the Neurosurgery Research and Education Foundation, Joe Niekro Foundation, Brain Aneurysm Foundation, Bee Foundation, and by the National Institute of Health (R01NS111119-01A1) and (UL1TR002736, KL2TR002737) through the Miami Clinical and Translational Science Institute, from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The paper's contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. RMS has an unrestricted research grant from Medtronic and has consulting and teaching agreements with Penumbra, Abbott, Medtronic, InNeuroCo, and Cerenovus. LJK reports funding support from the NINDS, consultant fees from Microvention, and stock ownership in Spi Surgical. MRL reports funding support from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, American Heart Association, Stryker, and Medtronic; consultant fees from Medtronic and Minnetronix; and equity interest from Proprio. AA reports funding support from the NIH, and consultant fees from Cerenovus. JFP reports consultant fees from Transonic. APK reports consultant fees from Medtronic and Penumbra. FTC reports serving as medical advisor for Bind-On Demand Health Insurance. DRY reports consultant fees from Medtronic, Cerenovus, and Rapid Medical and Neural Analytics. ECP reports consultant fees from Stryker Neurovascular, Penumbra, Medtronic, and Cerenovus, and stock ownership in RIST Neurovascular. BAG reports consultant fees from Microvention.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.