Background Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with high recurrence rates. Repeated microbleedings from fragile neo-vessels supplied by peripheral branches of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are believed to be responsible for the growth and recurrence of CSDH. Thus, MMA embolization might be a promising method to prevent re-bleedings and recurrences. This study aims to assess the efficacy, complication rates, and mid-term outcome of MMA embolization with or without burr hole irrigation compared with burr hole irrigation alone.
Methods Patients diagnosed with CSDH who underwent MMA embolization and/or surgical treatment were retrospectively recruited to this single-center study. The outcome variables were defined as treatment-related complications, clinical outcome at discharge, rate of revision surgery, and CT findings during the follow-up period.
Results A total of 132 patients with CSDH were included in the study. The use of antiplatelet/anticoagulant medication was significantly higher in the combined treatment and embolization group (p<0.001). A trend towards fewer revision surgeries was found in the group of patients who received MMA embolization combined with burr hole irrigation (p=0.083). Follow-up was available for 73 patients (55.3%) with a mean follow-up period of 3.4±2.2 months. Eight patients (15.1%) of the surgery group showed hematoma re-accumulation and needed surgical rescue, whereas only one patient (5.0%) of the combined treatment group needed revision surgery. In all patients treated with only MMA embolization, complete hematoma resolution was found.
Conclusion MMA embolization is a safe and efficacious minimal invasive adjuvant and/or alternative procedure for the treatment of CSDH with a reduced recurrence rate.
- liquid embolic material
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