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Photorealistic depiction of intracranial arteriovenous malformation using cinematic rendering of volumetric MRI data for presurgical planning and patient education
  1. Dhairya A Lakhani1,
  2. Frank Yuan1,
  3. Gerard Deib2
  1. 1 Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
  2. 2 Interventional Neuroradiology, West Virginia University Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Dhairya A Lakhani, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia WV 26506, USA; dhairyalakhani{at}

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Data from a three-dimensional (3D), high resolution, contrast enhanced study performed on a middle-aged woman with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was used to create photorealistic images using a customized post-processing cinematic rendering (CR) software platform (Anatomy Education, Siemens, Munich, Germany). The images were obtained on 3 T MRI (Siemens Verio; Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany). The rendered images depict salient AVM components and also provide information regarding the spatial relationship of the AVM to the cortical surface and scalp landmarks (figures 1 and 2; online supplemental video 1).

Supplementary video


Figure 1

Cinematic rendering reconstructions using single cutting plane slice-through provide a detailed three-dimensional depiction of the key arteriovenous malformation (AVM) angioarchitecture, including feeding arterial branches (A), the nidus (B), and …

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  • Twitter @dhairyalakhani, @gerarddeib

  • Contributors DAL: data curation, conceptualization, software, and writing-original draft preparation. FY: data curation and software. GD: Project supervision, data curation, conceptualization, software, and writing-reviewing and editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.