Background In medically refractory vasospasm, invasive intervention may be required. A commonly used approach is intra-arterial (IA) drug infusion. Although calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been widely applied in this setting, studies comparing their efficacies and durations of action have been few. This study was performed to compare attributes of three CCBs (nicardipine, nimodipine, and verapamil), focusing on duration of the vasodilatory action based on angiography.
Methods Vasospasm was produced in New Zealand white rabbits (N = 22) through experimentally induced subarachnoid hemorrhage and confirmed in each via conventional angiography, grouping them by IA-infused drug. Afterchemoangioplasty, angiography was performed hourly for 5 h to compare dilated and vasospastic arterial diameters. Drug efficacy, duration of action, and changes in mean arterial pressure (relative to baseline) were analyzed by group.
Results Effective vasodilation was evident in all three groups immediately after IA drug infusion. The vasodilative effects of nimodipine and nicardipine peaked at 1 h and were sustained at 2 h, returning to initial vasospastic statesat 3 h. In verapamil recipients, effects were more transient by comparison, entirely dissipating at 1 h. Only the nicardipine group showed a significant 3-h period of lowered blood pressure.
Conclusions Although nimodipine and nicardipine proved longer acting than verapamil in terms of vasodilation, their effects were not sustained beyond 2 h after IA infusion. Further study is required to confirm the vasodilatory duration of IA CCB based on perfusion status, and an effort should be made to find new alternative to extend the duration.
Disclosures J. Lim: 1; C; Chungnam National University Hospital Research Fund. K. Jung: None. H. Byoun: None. Y. Cho: 1; C; Seoul National University.
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