Introduction While endovascular coiling is a common method for treating intracranial aneurysms, recurrence and retreatment rates are high. Coating coils with biological agents has emerged as a promising strategy for improving aneurysm occlusion and reducing the risk of recurrence. Exosomes are small, membrane-bound extracellular vesicles that contain bioactive molecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Human platelet-derived exosomes (PEP) have been shown to increase cell proliferation and tissue remodeling, making them a promising candidate for regenerative aneurysm therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the pro-healing potential of PEP-coated coils for aneurysm healing.
Materials and Methods Clinical grade PEP, currently in clinical trials for vascular disease and wound healing, was used to coat bare platinum coils at various concentrations and duration. Coating efficiency and uniformity of the PEP coating on the coils were evaluated by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Exosome release kinetics from the PEP coils were assessed. To evaluate the efficacy of PEP-coated coils, cell proliferation, wound healing (cell migration) and colony forming assays were performed using endothelial cells. Thrombogenicity assay and blood contact angle measurement were utilized to assess thrombogenic complications of PEP.
Results PEP bound to the platinum coil within 5 minutes and was gradually released to media. Over 3 x 108 PEP particles were bound to 1 cm of the platinum coil. PEP-coated coils showed a 75% increase in endothelial cell proliferation, higher colony formation and fast wound healing compared to bare coils. PEP increased the hydrophilicity of the platinum surface by 33%, leading to a 2.5-fold increase in endothelial cell attachment and proliferation. PEP was rapidly up taken by endothelial cells and sequestered into the cytoplasm, did not induce thrombogenicity in a human blood loop model.
Conclusion PEP-coated platinum coils show potential for promoting aneurysm healing through cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation. The lack of thrombogenicity observed with PEP-coated coils suggests that they may be a safe and effective alternative to bare coils. Our findings suggest that PEP is a promising bioactive material for enhancing aneurysm healing. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the efficacy and safety of PEP-coated coils in a pre-clinical setting.
Disclosures S. Arul: None. T. Peterson: None. A. Behfar: None. R. Kadirvel: None. D. Kallmes: None.
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