Introduction 3D-printed vessel trees with intracranial aneurysms (IA) are regularly used for angiographic training of neuroradiologists in endovascular therapies. The anatomically correct orientation is often lost. The actual surrounding skull bone is missing, which in part decisively influences the X-ray visibility of the IAs.
Aim of Study: Create a 3D-printed skull model with a realistic appearance in DSA and CT with correct anatomical alignment.
Methods A skull model is printed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a skull specimen. The passage of the ACI is modified to accommodate different vascular anatomies and aneurysms. We use a 50% gravimetric stone powder PLA filament with a density of 1.7 g/cm³. Comparable volume images are produced in CT and Angiography-Unit (AU). Representative two-dimensional radiographs are taken in the AU. All images are compared by the optical impression, dose applied and by the Hounsfield units (HU).
Results The overall imaging appearance and dose of the printed model is very similar to that of the real skull on X-ray (0.090 vs 0.091 dGy*cm*cm). On CT, the average HU value of the printed material is 241 compared to 293 for the specimen.
Conclusion We created a 3D printed skull model using a filament with a high content of stone powder. From an angiographic point of view, it is equivalent to a real skull. With minor adjustments to the skull anatomy and the addition of printed vessels, it is possible to create an anatomically correct model that appears realistic on imaging for training and validation purposes.
Disclosure of Interest Nothing to disclose.
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