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Reporting standards for angioplasty and stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis
  1. H Christian Schumacher1,
  2. Philip M Meyers2,
  3. Randall T Higashida3,
  4. Colin P Derdeyn4,
  5. Sean D Lavine2,
  6. Gary M Nesbit5,
  7. David Sacks6,
  8. Peter Rasmussen7,
  9. Lawrence R Wechsler8
  1. 1Saul R Korey Department of Neurology, Division of Vascular Neurology and Neurocritical Care, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
  2. 2Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Neurological Institute of New York, New York, USA
  3. 3University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
  4. 4Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
  5. 5Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
  6. 6Advanced Interventional Radiology, Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania, USA
  7. 7Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  8. 8University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr P M Meyers, Radiology and Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Neuroendovascular Service, New York Presbyterian-Columbia Neurological Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA; pmm2002{at}


Background and purpose Intracranial cerebral atherosclerosis causes ischemic stroke in a significant number of patients. Technological advances over the past 10 years have enabled endovascular treatment of intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. The number of patients treated with angioplasty or stent-assisted angioplasty for this condition is increasing. Given the lack of universally accepted definitions, the goal of this document is to provide consensus recommendations for reporting standards, terminology, and written definitions when reporting clinical and radiological evaluation, technique, and outcome of endovascular treatment using angioplasty or stent-assisted angioplasty for stenotic and occlusive intracranial atherosclerosis.

Summary of report This article was written under the auspices of Joint Writing Group of the Technology Assessment Committee, Society of Neurolnterventional Surgery, Society of Interventional Radiology; Joint Section on Cerebro-vascular Neurosurgery of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and Congress of Neurological Surgeons; and the Section of Stroke and Interventional Neurology of the American Academy of Neurology. A computerized search of the National Library of Medicine database of literature (PubMed) from January 1997 to December 2007 was conducted with the goal to identify published endovascular cerebrovascular interventional data in stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis that could be used as benchmarks for quality assessment. We sought to identify those risk adjustment variables that affect the likelihood of success and complications. This document offers the rationale for different clinical and technical considerations that may be important during the design of clinical trials for endovascular treatment of intracranial stenotic and occlusive atherosclerosis. Included in this guidance document are suggestions for uniform reporting standards for such trials. These definitions and standards are primarily intended for research purposes; however, they should also be helpful in clinical practice and applicable to all publications.

Conclusion In summary, the definitions proposed represent recommendations for constructing useful research data sets. The intent is to facilitate production of scientifically rigorous results capable of reliable comparisons between and among similar studies. In some cases, the definitions contained here are recommended by consensus of a panel of experts in this writing group for consistency in reporting and publication. These definitions should allow different groups to publish results that are directly comparable.

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  • This article first appeared in Stroke: Schumacher HC, Meyers PM, Higashida RT, et al. Reporting standards for angioplasty and stent-angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis. Stroke 2009;40:348–65. Reproduced with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health.

  • Competing interests RTH served as a consultant to Cordis Neurovascular. GMN received honoraria from Cordis Neurovascular and Genentech, has an ownership interest in Concentric Medical and served as a consultant to Concentric Medical. LRW served as a consultant to Nuevelo Inc and Abbott Vascular. SDL received honoraria from Cordis Neurovascular. PR received honoraria from the Universities of Minnesota and Pittsburgh, Microvention/Terumo, ev3, Possis, Medical/Medrad and Micrus, has an ownership interest in Chestnut Medical and served as a consultant to Chestnut Medical.