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Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a patient with vasospasm secondary to coccidioidal meningitis: case report and review of the literature
  1. Yin C Hu,
  2. C Benjamin Newman,
  3. Ruth Bristol,
  4. Cameron G McDougall,
  5. Felipe C Albuquerque
  1. Division of Neurological Surgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona, USA
  1. Correspondence to Felipe C Albuquerque, c/o Neuroscience Publications, Barrow Neurological Institute, 350 West Thomas Road, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA; neuropub{at}


Introduction Coccidioidomycosis is secondary to infection with fungal species Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. One consequence of extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis dissemination is meningitis, which is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Intracranial vasospasm, although rarely described, can occur and may be a result of vasculitic or subacute fibrotic changes. We describe a case of successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in a patient with severe vasospasm related to coccidioidal meningitis. This is the first report of this endovascular treatment used to treat coccidioidal vasospasm.

Clinical presentation A patient with a history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis presented with acute confusion, blurry vision and headache. Serology confirmed basilar meningitis and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated severe symptomatic vasospasm.

Intervention Emergent cerebral angiography confirmed severe vasospasm in the right middle cerebral artery and moderate vasospasm in the left middle cerebral artery. Successful PTA was performed under general anesthesia. The patient demonstrated postprocedural angiographic and clinical improvement.

Conclusion We report the first case of successful PTA performed to treat vasospasm related to coccidioidal meningitis. When vasospasm is clinically symptomatic, PTA is a safe and feasible procedure.

  • Coccidioidal meningitis
  • vasospasm
  • angioplasty
  • brain
  • meninges
  • infection
  • inflammation
  • angioplasty

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Detail has been removed from this case to ensure anonymity. The editors and reviewers have seen the detailed information available and are satisfied that the information backs up the case the authors are making.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center Institutional Review Board. This case report has been reviewed by the Institutional Review Board of St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center and has been declared in full compliance with the hospital's policies on patient safety and privacy. This manuscript does not release the identity of any patient currently being treated or having received treatment at St Joseph's Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.