Pial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are a rare, although clinically significant, vascular anomaly affecting the pediatric population. There are few retrospective case series describing their epidemiological, clinical and radiographic characteristics as well as technical elements of treatment. Combined transarterial and transvenous embolization of a 12 month old female with a multi-hole pial AVF is described. The patient underwent treatment in a staged fashion and without neurological complication.
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Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.