Background and objective The presence of active contrast extravasation during CT angiography, the spot sign, is a potent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, its predictive value in patients with ICH due to a vascular abnormality, secondary ICH (SICH), is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of a spot sign and in-hospital mortality in patients with SICH.
Methods Two experienced readers independently reviewed CT angiograms performed on 215 consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with SICH over a 10-year period to assess the presence of spot signs according to strict radiological criteria. Differences in reader interpretation were resolved by consensus. Medical records were reviewed for baseline clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of a spot sign and in-hospital mortality in patients with SICH.
Results Spot signs were identified in 31 of 215 patients with SICH (14.4%), four of which were delayed spot signs (12.9%). Spot signs were most common in patients with arteriovenous fistulas (42%), Moyamoya (40%), elevated admission blood glucose (23%) and large intraventricular hemorrhage volumes (29%). Spot signs were most predictive of in-hospital mortality in patients with aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery (100%) and anterior communicating artery (75%). In univariate analysis, the presence of a spot sign significantly increased the risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with SICH (38.7%, OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.9, p=0.0497). However, in multivariate logistic regression analysis the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was the only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with SICH (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.1, p=0.0004).
Conclusion The spot sign identifies patients with SICH at increased risk of in-hospital mortality. However, the admission Glasgow Coma Scale was the only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in this cohort of patients with SICH.
- arteriovenous malformation
- posterior fossa
- CT angiography
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Funding American Heart Association Grant-in-Aid #0755984T and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke grant #K23NS059774.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval Ethics approval was provided by Institutional Review Board.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.