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Original research
Continuous daily use of cilostazol prevents in-stent restenosis following carotid artery stenting: serial angiographic investigation of 229 lesions
  1. Yuichi Miyazaki1,
  2. Takahisa Mori2,
  3. Tomonori Iwata2,
  4. Yoshinori Aoyagi2,
  5. Yuhei Tanno2,
  6. Shigen Kasakura2,
  7. Kazuhiro Yoshioka2
  1. 1Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka, Japan
  2. 2Department of Stroke Treatment, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kamakura, Kanagawa, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Y Miyazaki, Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565 Japan; ymiyazaki{at}


Background Several studies have reported that cilostazol (CLS) may reduce in-stent restenosis (ISR) after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, it is not known for how long CLS must be continued to prevent ISR.

Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database of patients who underwent elective CAS and follow-up angiography at 3 months and 1 year after the procedure. ISR was defined as stenosis of 50% or greater on digital subtraction angiography. The cumulative incidence rates of angiographic ISR were compared between the three groups, divided according to duration of CLS use : (1) patients who were maintained on CLS for 12 months or more after CAS (12M CLS group, n=70), (2) patients who were treated with CLS for the first 3 months after CAS (3M CLS group, n=23), and (3) patients who did not receive CLS (no CLS group, n=136).

Results A total of 229 lesions in 199 patients were included in our analysis. During a median follow-up of 365 days, ISR was detected in 15 lesions. The cumulative ISR rates overall and in the 12M CLS, 3M CLS, and no CLS groups were 5.6%, 0%, 5.0%, and 8.4%, respectively, at 1 year, and the log rank test showed that there was a significant difference between the three groups (p<0.05). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 12M CLS group had a significantly lower risk of ISR than the 3M CLS group (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 3.06e-10, 95% CI 0 to 0.51, p<0.05) and the no CLS group (aRR 1.41e-10, 95% CI 0 to 0.15, p<0.001), whereas no difference was found between the 3M CLS group and the no CLS group.

Conclusions An overall cumulative ISR rate of 5.6% was documented angiographically at 1 year after CAS. Continuous daily use of CLS (for at least 1 year) may have a beneficial effect on long term prevention of ISR.

  • Stent
  • Angiography
  • Cervical
  • Drug

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