Aim To evaluate the relationship between leptomeningeal collaterals and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after carotid artery stenting (CAS).
Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of 228 patients (median age 75 years (range 44–90); 187 men and 41 women) who underwent CAS due to unilateral carotid atherosclerotic plaque from January 2009 to December 2013. Cerebral angiographic findings were classified into three patterns: type I, normal visualization of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries without leptomeningeal collaterals; type II, visualization of the middle cerebral artery only without leptomeningeal collaterals; and type III, visualization of leptomeningeal collateral flow.
Results For all cerebral angiographic findings, 146 (64.0%) were type I, 61 (26.8%) were type II, and 21 (9.2%) were type III. Four patients (1.8%) died with fatal ICH after CAS and had type III angiographic findings (19%). The prevalence of ICH in patients with leptomeningeal collateral vessels was significantly higher than in patients without leptomeningeal collateral vessels (19% vs 0%, p<0.0001). The percentage of carotid stenosis in patients with ICH based on North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria was significantly higher than in patients without ICH (89.8±3.6% vs 72.8±12.8%, p=0.014).
Conclusions Leptomeningeal collateral vessels are a major risk factor for ICH after CAS in patients with carotid atherosclerotic plaque.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.