Intracerebral hemorrhage and, more specifically, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, are devastating disease processes with poor clinical outcomes. Primary injury to the brain results from initial hematoma expansion while secondary hemorrhagic injury occurs from blood-derived products such as hemoglobin, heme, iron, and coagulation factors that overwhelm the brains natural defenses. Novel neuroprotective treatments have emerged that target primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Nonetheless, translational application of neuroprotectants from preclinical to clinical studies has yet to show beneficial clinical outcomes. This review summarizes therapeutic agents and neuroprotectants in ongoing clinical trials aimed at targeting primary and secondary mechanisms of injury after intraparenchymal hemorrhage.
- Intracerebral Hemorrhage
- Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage
- Hemorrhagic Toxicity
- Blood derived products
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Contributors Conception and design: WJM. Literature search: RMB. Drafting the article: RMB and BPW. Critically revising the article: all authors. Graphic development: RR and RMB. Reviewed submitted version of manuscript: all authors. Guarantor: RMB.
Funding This work has been supported by National Institute of Health grant ES024936 to WJM.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement Review article.