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Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare, accounting for 1–1.5% of all intracranial malformations.1 However, they may have angiographic features that increase the risk of rupture: cortical venous drainage, venous ectasia, venous stenosis and high arterial flow. If the dAVF has these angiographic features, treatment may be indicated regardless of the clinical presentation.2–4 In this neurosurgical …
Contributors EAS and JAR: manuscript and technical video preparation, guarantors of the study; GD, SD and DMH: critical revision of contents.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests GD is a consultant for Medtronic, Microvention, Penumbra, and Cerenovus. EAS is a consultant for Microvention, Medtronic, and Shape Medical.
Patient consent for publication Obtained.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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