Background Onyx is frequently used for endovascular embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). One drawback of using Onyx is the generation of artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT). These artifacts can represent an obstacle for the detection of periprocedural hemorrhage or planning of subsequent radiosurgery. This study investigates the effect of artifact reduction by the syngo DynaCT SMART Metal Artifact Reduction (MAR) software.
Methods A standardized in vitro tube model (n=10) was filled with Onyx 18 and CBCT image acquisition was conducted in a brain imaging phantom. Furthermore, post-interventional CBCT images of 20 patients with AVM (n=13) or dAVF (n=7), each treated with Onyx, were investigated. The MAR software was applied for artifact reduction. Artifacts of the original and the post-processed images were analyzed quantitatively (standard deviation in a region of interest on the layer providing the most artifacts) and qualitatively. For the patient images, the effect of the MAR software on brain parenchyma on artifact-free images was further investigated.
Results Quantitative and qualitative analyses of both datasets demonstrated a lower degree of artifacts in the post-processed images (eg, patient images: 38.30±22.03 density units (no MAR; mean SD±SD) vs 19.83±12.31 density units (with MAR; p<0.001). The MAR software had no influence on the brain parenchyma in artifact-free images.
Conclusion The MAR software significantly reduced the artifacts evoked by Onyx in CBCT without affecting the visualization of brain parenchyma on artifact-free images. Applying this software could thus improve the quality of periprocedural CBCT images after embolization with Onyx.
- liquid embolic material
- vascular malformation
Data availability statement
All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplemental information.
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Contributors NSCH, MB, MAM and DFV initiated the project. NSCH and DFV led the research, conducted the retrospective data acquisition, statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript. MB, MAM and DFV were involved in the study design and concept. CSW, LW and CMS participated in data acquisition. All authors discussed the results, commented on the paper, and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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