Background Early neurological deterioration (END) may occur in some patients with acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT). Despite several clear causes of END, such as symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, failure of recanalization, and intraprocedure complications, a particular END, termed unexplained END (ENDunexplained), exists. We aimed to investigate the incidence, independent predictors, and clinical impact of ENDunexplained after EVT in patients with acute LVO.
Methods Subjects were selected from the ANGEL-ACT registry. ENDunexplained was defined as ≥4-point increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score between baseline and 24 hours after EVT, without the causes listed above. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictors of ENDunexplained, as well as the association between ENDunexplained and 90-day outcomes assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score.
Results Among the 1557 enrolled patients, the incidence of ENDunexplained was 4.3% (67/1557). Admission NIHSS ≤8 (OR=6.88, 95% CI 3.86 to 12.26, p<0.001), general anesthesia (OR=3.15, 95% CI 1.81 to 5.48, p<0.001), admission neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >5 (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.94, p<0.001), and number of EVT attempts >3 (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.89, p=0.018) were associated independently with a high risk of ENDunexplained. Furthermore, patients with ENDunexplained were associated with a shift toward worse 90-day outcomes (mRS 5 vs 3, common OR=5.24, 95% CI 3.22 to 8.52, p<0.001).
Conclusions ENDunexplained associated with poor 90day outcomes occurred in 4.3% of patients with acute LVO undergoing EVT. Several independent predictors of ENDunexplained were identified in this study, which should be considered in daily practice to improve acute LVO management.
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
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Contributors Study concept and design, data acquisition, statistical analyses, interpretation of the data, and drafting the manuscript: DS. Major role in data acquisition, interpretation of the data, and critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: XT. Critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: XH, BJ, R, AW, GM, NM, FG, DM, LS, XS, LL, YD, XL, BW, GL, and YW. Study concept and design, interpretation of the data, critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content: ZM.
Funding The study was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China, grant No 2016YFC1301500.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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