Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Original research
Derivation and validation of a predictive scale to expedite endovascular intervention for acute stroke patients with an intervenable vessel occlusion


Background Early endovascular intervention team mobilization may reduce reperfusion times and improve clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with a possible intervenable vessel occlusion (IVO). In an emergency department or mobile stroke unit, incorporating rapidly available non-contrast CT (NCCT) information with examination findings may improve the accuracy of arterial occlusion prediction scales. For this purpose, we developed a rapid and straightforward IVO predictive instrument—the T3AM2PA1 scale.

Methods The T3AM2PA1 scale was retrospectively derived from our ‘Get with the Guidelines’ database. We included all patients with acute stroke alert between January 2017 and August 2018 with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score between 5 and 25 inclusive. Different pre-intervention variables were collected, including itemized NIHSS and NCCT information. The T3AM2PA1 scale was also compared with other commonly used scales and was validated in a separate sequential retrospective cohort of patients with a full range of NIHSS scores.

Results 574 eligible patients from 2115 acute stroke alerts were identified. The scale was established with five items (CT hyperdense sign, parenchymal hypodensity, lateralizing hemiparesis, gaze deviation, and language disturbance), with a total score of 9. To minimize unnecessary angiography, a cut-off of ≥5 for IVO detection yielded a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 90%, and a positive predictive value of 76%.

Conclusions The T3AM2PA1 scale accurately predicts the presence of clinical IVO in patients with AIS. Adopting the T3AM2PA1 scale could reduce revascularization times, improve treatment outcomes, and potentially reduce disability.

  • thrombectomy
  • stroke

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.