Objective To evaluate the effect of procedure time on thrombectomy outcomes in different subpopulations of patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy (EVT), given the recently expanded indications for EVT.
Methods This multicenter study included patients undergoing EVT for acute ischemic stroke at 35 centers globally. Procedure time was defined as time from groin puncture to successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score ≥2b) or abortion of procedure. Patients were stratified based on stroke location, use of IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score, age group, and onset-to-groin time. Primary outcome was the 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score, with scores 0–2 designating good outcome. Secondary outcome was postprocedural symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Multivariate analyses were performed using generalized linear models to study the impact of procedure time on outcomes in each subpopulation.
Results Among 8961 patients included in the study, a longer procedure time was associated with higher odds of poor outcome (mRS score 3–6), with 10% increase in odds for each 10 min increment. When procedure time exceeded the ‘golden hour’, poor outcome was twice as likely. The golden hour effect was consistent in patients with anterior and posterior circulation strokes, proximal or distal occlusions, in patients with large core infarcts, with or without IV tPA treatment, and across age groups. Procedures exceeding 1 hour were associated with a 40% higher sICH rate. Posterior circulation strokes, delayed presentation, and old age were the variables most sensitive to procedure time.
Conclusions In this work we demonstrate the universality of the golden hour effect, in which procedures lasting more than 1 hour are associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of sICH across different subpopulations of patients undergoing EVT.
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
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Contributors AA, JAG, and AMS conceived the study. AA and AMS are the guarantors of the study. AA and MA performed the analyses. AA, JAG, and MA wrote the first draft of manuscript. All remaining authors contributed data, discussed the results, and contributed to editing and revising the final version of the work.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests CMC: Consultant-Silk Road, Penumbra, Microvention, Cerevasc, Stryker, Speaker-Silk Road, Penumbra; AMS: Consultant- Stryker, Penumbra, Terumo, RapidAI; PJ: Consultant-Balt, Cerus, Microvention, Medtronic; M-NP: Honoraria - Stryker, Medtronic, Penumbra, Acandis, Phenox, Siemens Healthineers, Research Support-Swiss National Science Foundation, Bangerter-Rhyner Stiftung, Stryker, Phenox, Medtronic, Rapid, Penumbra, Siemens Healthineer; RDL: Research funding: Hyprevention, Kaneka Medical, Siemens Healthineers, SNIS foundation; Consultant: Stryker Neurovascular, imperative care, Cerenovus, Asahi Intec; Stock: synchron, endostream, Q’Apel, spartan micro; PK: Consultant: Stryker, Microvention, Imperative Care; AJP: Consultant: Stryker, Depuy Synthes; ASA: Research grants: Balt, Medtronic, Microvention, Penumbra and Siemens; Consultant: Arsenal, Balt, Johnson and Johnson, Medtronic, Microvention, Penumbra, Scientia, Siemens, Stryker; Shareholder: Azimuth, Bendit, Cerebrotech, Endostream, Magneto, Mentice, Neurogami, Neuros, Scientia, Serenity, Synchron, Tulavi, Vastrax, VizAI; MRL: Research grants: Stryker, Medtronic; Consultant: Medtronic, Aeaean Advisers; Shareholder: Hyperion Surgical, Proprio, Synchron, Cerebrotech, Fluid Biomed, Stereotaxis; SIT: Consultant: Microvention, Medtronic; JAG: Grant support- Georgia Research Alliance, Department of Defense, Emory Medical Care Foundation, Neurosurgery Catalyst, Stock- NTI, Cognition, AA: Research grants: NIH, AHA, Department of VA.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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