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Original research
Superior hypophyseal arteries: angiographic re-discovery, comprehensive assessment, and embryologic implications
  1. Maksim Shapiro1,2,3,4,
  2. Vera Sharashidze1,2,3,4,
  3. Erez Nossek1,4,5,
  4. Chandra Sen1,
  5. Caleb Rutledge1,5,
  6. Charlotte Chung2,4,
  7. Ayaz Khawaja2,4,
  8. Svetlana Kvint2,4,
  9. Howard Riina1,2,3,
  10. Peter Kim Nelson1,2,4,
  11. Eytan Raz1,2,4
  1. 1Neurosurgery, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  2. 2Radiology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  3. 3Neurology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  4. 4Radiology, NYC Health Hospitals Bellevue, New York, NY, USA
  5. 5Neurosurgery, NYC Health Hospitals Bellevue, New York, NY, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Maksim Shapiro, Radiology, Neurosurgery and Neurology, NYU, New York, NY 10016, USA; maksim.shapiro{at}


The superior hypophyseal arteries (SHAs) are well known in anatomical and surgical literature, with a well-established role in supply of the anterior hypophysis and superjacent optic apparatus. However, due to small size and overlap with other vessels, in vivo imaging by any modality has been essentially non-existent. Advances in high resolution cone beam CT angiography (CBCTA) now enables this deficiency to be addressed. This paper presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first comprehensive in vivo imaging evaluation of the SHAs.

Methods Twenty-five CBCTA studies of common or internal carotid arteries were obtained for a variety of clinical reasons. Dedicated secondary reconstructions of the siphon were performed, recording the presence, number, and supply territory of SHAs. A spectrum approach, emphasizing balance with adjacent territories (inferior hypophyseal, ophthalmic, posterior and communicating region arteries) was investigated.

Results The SHAs were present in all cases. Supply of the anterior pituitary was nearly universal (96%) and almost half (44%) originated from the ‘cave’ region, in excellent agreement with surgical literature. Optic apparatus supply was more difficult to adjudicate, but appeared present in most cases. The relationship with superior hypophyseal aneurysms was consistent. Patency following flow diverter placement was typical, despite a presumably rich collateral network. Embryologic implications with respect to the ophthalmic artery and infraoptic course of the anterior cerebral artery are intriguing.

Conclusions SHAs are consistently seen with CBCTA, allowing for correlation with existing anatomical and surgical literature, laying the groundwork for future in vivo investigation.

  • angiography
  • brain
  • technique

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to data aquisition. Advanced data processing was done principally by ER and MS. The manuscript was written principally by MS, with review by all authors. MS is responsible for overall content as guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests MS: Medtronic, Microvention, Phenox, Balt: consultant. ER: Balt, Imperative Care, Medtronic, Microvention, Qapel, Phenox, Vasorum: consultant; Siemens: stockholder.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.