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Case series
Treatment of intraorbital arteriovenous fistulas with direct puncture: a case series and review of treatments since 1978


Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulas (IOAVFs) are rare vascular pathologies that may be effectively treated with direct puncture (DP) of the venous supply and may offer a definitive and safe cure when done under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Here we present three new cases of DP treatment of IOAVFs, indications for safe use, and their potential complications in comparison to the existing literature on DP and other modalities.

Three patients with IOAVFs were treated with DP with ultrasound guidance, stereotactic guidance, and fluoroscopy. Final digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed complete cure of IOAVFs. A literature review via PubMed was performed on treatments of IOAVFs since 1978.

All three cases of DP resulted in successful cures with 2/3 cases resulting in complications from orbital hematoma formation. 49 total treatments including the cases herein have been documented. DP treatment constituted 5/49, conservative management 17/49, transarterial 8/49, transvenous 18/49, and surgical 3/49. Some cases received more than one mode of treatment. Transarterial and surgical managements were found to have higher complication rates than transvenous and DP.

DP is a safe and effective treatment of IOAVFs that can be performed via multiple image guided methods and guarantees a definitive cure. Orbital hematomas are a potential complication of which operators should be aware.

  • Vascular Malformation
  • Technique
  • Orbit
  • Intervention
  • Fistula

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