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Overloaded transnidal pressure gradient as the hemodynamic mechanism leading to arteriovenous malformation rupture: a quantitative analysis using intravascular pressure monitoring and color-coded digital subtraction angiography

Abstract

Background The hemodynamics of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may have implications for hemorrhage. This study aimed to explore the hemodynamics of ruptured AVMs by direct microcatheter intravascular pressure monitoring (MIPM) and indirect quantitative digital subtraction angiography (QDSA).

Methods We recruited patients with AVMs at a tertiary neurosurgery center from October 2020 to March 2023. In terms of MIPM, we preoperatively super-selected a predominant feeding artery and main draining vein through angiography to measure intravascular pressure before embolization. In processing of QDSA, we adopted previously standardized procedure for quantitative hemodynamics analysis of pre-embolization digital subtraction angiography (DSA), encompassing main feeding artery, nidus, and the main draining vein. Subsequently, we investigated the correlation between AVM rupture and intravascular pressure from MIPM, as well as hemodynamic parameters derived from QDSA. Additionally, we explored the interrelationships between hemodynamic indicators in both dimensions.

Results After strict screening of patients, our study included 10 AVMs (six ruptured and four unruptured). We found that higher transnidal pressure gradient (TPG) (53.00±6.36 vs 39.25±8.96 mmHg, p=0.042), higher feeding artery pressure (FAP) (72.83±5.46 vs 65.00±6.48 mmHg, p=0.031) and higher stasis index of nidus (3.54±0.73 vs 2.43±0.70, p=0.043) were significantly correlated with AVM rupture. In analysis of interrelationships between hemodynamic indicators in both dimensions, a strongly positive correlation (r=0.681, p=0.030) existed between TPG and stasis index of nidus.

Conclusions TPG and FAP from MIPM platform and nidus stasis index from QDSA platform were correlated with AVM rupture, and both were positively correlated, suggesting that higher pressure load within nidus may be the central mechanism leading to AVM rupture.

  • Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Blood Pressure
  • Catheter
  • Hemorrhage
  • Blood Flow

Data availability statement

All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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