Table 2

Summary of 16 patients with complications after endovascular treatment

Patient NoLocationHigh flowCortical vein drainageAdjunctive techniqueOnyx ApproachComplicationsClinical OutcomeAnatomic outcome
1SSYesNoArterial BATArterialAsymptomatic Onyx migration into the jugular veinCureComplete
2SSSNoNoVenous BATArterialAsymptomatic Onyx migration into the SSSImprovedNear-complete
3TSYesNoVenous BATVenousSymptomatic Onyx migration into the lung resulting in pulmonary embolism; femoral artery thrombosis requiring surgical thrombectomyCureComplete
4TSYesYesArterial coilingArterialOnyx refluxed into the cavernous ICA through the extracranial–intracranial anastomosisDeath; withdraw of care due to poor prognosisPartial
5TentoriumYesYesVenous coilingArterialNew cranial nerve VI palsyImprovedComplete
6ClivusYesYesVenous coilingArterialNew cranial nerve X and XI palsies; worse cranial nerve III palsyCureComplete
7Hypoglossal canalYesNoVenous coilingVenousNew cranial nerve XII palsyCureNear complete
8TSYesYesArterial coilingArterialMicrocatheter fracture and retention in the ECACureComplete
9MultipleYesYesVenous coilingVenousMicrocatheter trap in the Onyx cast and retentionDeath; withdraw of care due to poor prognosisPartial
10Torcular herophiliYesYesVenous coilingVenousMicrocatheter trap in the Onyx cast and retentionCurePartial
11TSYesNoVenous coilingVenousCerebellar hematoma treated by surgical evacuationImprovedComplete
12CSNoYesVenous coilingVenousThromboembolic occlusion in the MCA branch recanalized by intra-arterial thrombolysisCureComplete
13Sphenoidal regionYesNoVenous coilingVenousAsymptomatic stretched coil retentionCureComplete
14TentoriumYesYesNoArterialMicrocatheter fracture and retention in the ECACureComplete
15MultipleYesYesNoArterialMicrocatheter fracture in the ECA successfully retrieved using Merci deviceCureNear complete
16Torcular herophiliYesYesNoArterialVessel dissection in the ECA during catheterization controlled with OnyxCureComplete
  • BAT, balloon assisted technique; CS, cavernous sinus.; ECA, external carotid artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; SS, sigmoid sinus; SSS, superior sagittal sinus; TS, transverse sigmoid sinus.