Table 2

Mean differences of the measurement results with the ground truth

`Measurement methodsMeanSDSE
MM-AC-2D−0.1016*0.099980.01666
AM-AC-2D−0.1154*0.165380.02756
MM-MC-2D0.02570.133230.02220
AM-MC-2D−0.00510.180020.03000
MM-overlay grid-3D−0.07160.109010.01927
MM-line drawing-3D−0.04320.126810.02242
AM-3D0.00850.108480.01918
  • *Indicates that the mean difference of this method is statistically different from those of AM-MC-2D and AM-3D methods.

  • AC, autocalibration; AM, automated measurement; 2D/3D, two-dimensional/three-dimensional; MC, manual calibration.