Independent outcome | Mortality | Poor outcome | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

No of studies included | Effect estimate (95% CI) | Heterogeneity | No of studies included | Effect estimate (95% CI) | Heterogeneity | No of studies included | Effect estimate (95% CI) | Heterogeneity | |

Short-term outcome (at discharge to 3 months’ follow-up) | |||||||||

RCT | 3 | 0.67 (0.57 to 0.79) | p=0.56; I²=0% | 2 | 1.09 (0.79 to 1.50) | p=0.75; I²=0% | 3 | 1.53 (1.29 to 1.81) | p=0.46; I²=0% |

Observational studies | 21 | 1.12 (0.83 to 1.52) | p<0.0000; I²=77% | 17 | 0.76 (0.50 to 1.15) | p< 0.0001; I²=69% | 21 | 1.14 (1.00 to 1.30) | p<0.00001; I²=80% |

Database registry studies | 3 | 1.02 (0.87 to 1.18) | p=0.13; I²=52% | 4 | 0.88 (0.80 to 0.96) | p=0.11; I²=50% | 3 | 0.98 (0.85 to 1.14) | p=0.13; I²=52% |

Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | |||||||

Overall effect | NA | NA | NA | NA | 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98) | p=0.34, I²=8.0% | NA | NA | NA |

Intermediate outcome (>3 months to 1-year follow-up) | |||||||||

RCT | 4 | 0.69 (0.59 to 0.81) | p=0.97; I²=0% | 3 | 1.29 (0.98 to 1.69) | p=0.95; I²=0% | 4 | 0.69 (0.59 to 0.82) | p=0.98; I²=0% |

Observational studies | 24 | 0.82 (0.71 to 0.96) | p=0.06; I²=33% | 18 | 0.93 (0.67 to 1.31) | p=0.33; I²=10% | 24 | 1.15 (1.03 to 1.28) | p=0.04; I²=38% |

Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | |||||||

Overall effect | 28 | 0.80 (0.68 to 0.94) | p=0.17, I²=47.4% | 21 | 1.13 (0.92 to 1.40) | p=0.33; I²=11% | 28 | 1.26 (1.07 to 1.48) | p=0.20, I²=37·9% |

Long-term outcome (>1-year follow-up) | |||||||||

RCT | 2 | 0.80 (0.69 to 0.94) | p=0.38; I²=0% | 1 | 1.39 (1.09 to 1.77) | NA | 2 | 1.25 (1.06 to 1.46) | p=0.38; I²=0% |

Observational studies | 9 | 0.84 (0.63 to 1.10) | p=0.47; I²=0% | 8 | 0.71 (0.48 to 1.06) | p=0.34; I²=12% | 9 | 1.44 (1.06 to 1.95) | p=0.57; I²=0% |

Test for subgroup differences | Test for subgroup differences | Test for subgroup differences | |||||||

Overall effect | 11 | 0.81 (0.71 to 0.93) | p=0.80, I²=0% | NA | NA | NA | 11 | 1.29 (1.12 to 1.48) | p=0.62; I²=0% |

RCT, randomized controlled trial.