Short-term outcome (at discharge to 3 months’ follow-up) |

Observational studies | 12 | 0.77 (0.56 to 1.07) | p=0.60; I²=0% | 11 | 0.88 (0.48 to 1.62) | p=0.79; I²=0% | 12 | 1.27 (0.92 to 1.76) | p=0.28; I²=18% |

Database registry studies | 9 | 0.34 (0.29 to 0.41) | p<0.00001; I²=89% | 9 | 1.74 (1.52 to 1.98) | p=0.11; I²=38% | 9 | 2.91 (2.42 to 3.51) | p<0.00001; I²=89% |

| | | Test for subgroup differences | | | Test for subgroup differences | | | Test for subgroup differences |

Overall effect | | NA | NA | | NA | NA | | NA | NA |

Intermediate outcome (>3 months to 1-year follow-up) |

Observational studies | 11 | 1.07 (0.72 to 1.57) | p=0.68; I²=0% | 11 | 0.71 (0.41 to 1.24) | p=0.44; I²=0% | 11 | 0.95 (0.64 to 1.40) | p=0.69; I²=0% |

| | | Test for subgroup differences | | | Test for subgroup differences | | | Test for subgroup differences |

Overall effect | | NA | NA | | NA | NA | | NA | NA |

Long-term outcome (>1-year follow-up) |

Observational studies | 5 | 3.01 (1.14 to 7.99) | p=0.46; I²=0% | 6 | 0.45 (0.09 to 2.33) | p=0.12; I²=52% | 5 | 0.33 (0.13 to 0.88) | p=0.46; I²=0% |

Database registry studies | NA | NA | NA | 2 | 0.96 (0.78 to 1.18) | p=0.85; I²=0% | NA | NA | NA |

| | | Test for subgroup differences | | | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² | | | Test for subgroup differences: p, I² |

Overall effect | | NA | NA | | 0.94 (0.77 to 1.15) | p=0.43, I²=0% | | NA | NA |