Table 1

Summary of follow-up and outcome data for all 17 studies presented individually and pooled

Follow-up (months)Postoperative radiographic resolution Complications† RecurrenceNeurologic outcome‡ Death
Authors and yearCompletePartialCatheter-relatedNew+worse ICHGood (mRS 0–2)Poor (mRS 3–5)
Ma et al 18 20166–1423/23 (100.0%)0/23 (0.0%)0/23 (0.0%)0/23 (0.0%)0/23 (0.0%)
Mokin et al 14 201533/11 (27.3%)8/11 (72.7%)0/11 (0.0%)4/9 (44.4%)2/9 (22.2%)3/11 (27.3%)
Zhen et al 12 20155/8 (62.5%)2/8 (25.0%)0/8 (0.0%)0/7 (0.0%)7/8 (87.5%)0/8 (0.0%)1/8 (12.5%)
Shui et al 13 201442.326/26 (100.0%)0/26 (0.0%)0/26 (0.0%)0/26 (0.0%)
Siddiqui et al 16 2014616/33 (48.5%)13/33 (39.4%)4/34 (11.8%)8/34 (23.5%)1/29 (3.4%)19/29§ (65.5%)8/29§ (27.6%)7/34 (20.6%)
Poulsen et al 19¶ 2013
Mortimer et al 20 20133/9 (33.3%)5/9 (55.6%)2/9 (22.2%)2/9 (22.2%)0/8 (0.0%)8/9 (88.9%)0/9 (0.0%)1/9 (11.1%)
Li et al 21 2013645/52 (86.5%)3/52 (5.8%)4/52 (7.7%)0/48 (0.0%)43/52 (82.7%)3/52 (5.8%)6/52 (11.5%)
Jankowitz et al 8 20136/6 (100.0%)0/6 (0.0%)0/6 (0.0%)0/6 (0.0%)4/6 (66.7%)1/6 (16.7%)1/6 (16.7%)
Dashti et al 7 201356/13 (46.2%)7/13 (53.8%)1/13 (7.7%)0/13 (0.0%)7/9 (77.8%)0/9 (0.0%)2/13 (15.4%)
Choulakian and Alexander6 20103/4 (75.0%)1/4 (25.0%)0/4 (0.0%)0/4 (0.0%)3/4 (75.0%)0/4 (0.0%)1/4 (25.0%)
La Barge et al 10 200950/9 (0.0%)9/9 (100.0%)1/9 (11.1%)0/9 (0.0%)4/9 (44.4%)2/9 (22.2%)3/9 (33.3%)
Modi et al 22 20099.51/4 (25.0%)3/4 (75.0%)0/4 (0.0%)0/4 (0.0%)2/4 (50.0%)1/4 (25.0%)1/4 (25.0%)
Zhang et al 11 2008124/6 (66.7%)2/6 (33.3%)0/6 (0.0%)0/6 (0.0%)4/6 (66.7%)0/6 (0.0%)2/6 (33.3%)
Tsai et al 23 200715/15 (100.0%)0/15 (0.0%)0/15 (0.0%)
Kirsch et al 9 20074/4 (100.0%)0/4 (0.0%)0/4 (0.0%)0/4 (0.0%)3/4 (75.0%)0/4 (0.0%)1/4 (25.0%)
Baker et al 17 20012/5 (40.0%)3/5 (60.0%)1/5 (20.0%)1/5 (20.0%)1/5 (20.0%)4/5 (80.0%)1/5 (20.0%)0/5 (0.0%)
Total147/213 (69.0%)56/213 (26.3%)9/143 (6.3%)15/173 (8.7%)2/168 (1.2%)127/167 (76.0%)18/167 (10.8%)29/203 (14.3%)
Range5–42.30.0–100.0%0.0–100.0%0.0–22.2%0.0–23.5%0.0–20.0%44.4–100%0.0–27.6%0.0–33.3%
  • *Blank cells represent data that were not reported.

  • †Catheter-related complications: sinus perforation: 3/143 (2.1%); catheter tip fracture: 1/143 (0.7%); groin hematoma: 3/143 (2.1%); retroperitoneal hematoma: 1/143 (0.7%); transient leg ischemia: 1/143 (0.7%).

  • ‡Neurologic deficit recording based on neurologic data explicitly reported in the studies when possible. If such data were not available, an mRS of 0 corresponded to normal neurologic function; 1–2, to mild neurologic deficit; 3–4, to moderate; and 5, to severe. An mRS score of 0–2 was considered a good outcome while an mRS score of 3–5 was considered a poor outcome.

  • §Neurologic deficit correspond to status at discharge; however, at >6-months’ follow-up, mRS was ≤1 in 16 patients (73%) and >1 in 6 patients (27%).

  • ¶Poulsen et al reported on nine patients treated endovascularly for CVST. Of these, six underwent mechanical thrombectomy, but follow-up and outcome data for only these six could not be extracted from the study. Overall, patients were followed-up for 6 months. Complete recanalization was achieved in 2/9 cases; partial, in 7/9 cases. Complications included traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (1/9), new ICH (3/9), worsening ICH (1/9), and death (1/9). There were no instances of CVST recurrence during this follow-up duration. Neurologic outcome was normal in 5/9 cases, mild deficit in 2/9 cases, and moderate deficit in 1/9 cases (based on mRS).

  • CVST, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; ICH, intracerebral hemorrhage; mRS, modified Rankin Scale.