Table 3

Main inclusion criteria in the DEFUSE-3 and DAWN trials

Inclusion criteriaDEFUSE-310 DAWN9
Time window6–16 hours since time last known well6–24 hours since time last known well
Age18–90 years≥18 years
mRS score before qualifying stroke≤2; life expectancy ≥6 months≤1; life expectancy ≥6 months
NIHSS score≥6≥10 (see below)
Arterial occlusionICA and/or M1*ICA and/or M1
Mismatch definitionTarget mismatch profile on CT or MR perfusion imaging, as determined by an automated image postprocessing system:
Infarct core volume <70 mL†
AND mismatch volume >15 mL (Tmax>6 s‡)
AND mismatch ratio (penumbra/core) >1.8
Clinical-imaging mismatch
Age <80 years and NIHSS score ≥10 and infarct core 0–30 mL
OR age <80 years and NIHSS score ≥20 and infarct core 31–51 mL
OR age ≥80 years and NIHSS score ≥10 and infarct core 0–20 mL
  • *Carotid occlusions could be cervical or intracranial, with or without tandem MCA lesions in DEFUSE-3.

  • †Based on CT perfusion or MRI diffusion.

  • ‡The size of the penumbra was estimated from the volume of tissue for which there was delayed arrival of an injected tracer agent (time to maximum of the residue function (Tmax) exceeding 6 s.148

  • ICA, internal cerebral artery; MCA, middle cerebral artery; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale.