Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with low-grade AVMs

VariableUnruptured AVMRuptured AVMP value*Total
Total133125258
Sex (%)0.73
  Male62 (46.6)61 (48.8)123
  Female71 (53.4)64 (51.2)135
Age (years), mean±SD38.2±14.938.4±18.50.95
Spetzler-Martin grade (%)0.45
  I45 (33.8)48 (38.4)93
  II88 (66.2)77 (61.6)165
Presentation (%)
  Hemorrhage0125 (100)125
  Headache42 (31.6) 042
  Seizure54 (40.6) 054
  Deficit12 (9.0)012
  Incidental25 (18.8)025
Venous drainage (%)0.23
  Deep21 (15.8)27 (21.6)48
  Superficial112 (84.2)98 (78.4)210
Eloquence (%)0.19
  Eloquent54 (40.6)41 (32.8)95
  Non-eloquent79 (59.4)84 (67.2)163
Treatment (%) 0.0013
  Presurgical embolization90 (67.7)74 (59.2)164
  Microsurgery alone15 (11.3)39 (31.2)54
  Radiosurgery alone28 (21.1)12 (9.6)40
Embolization
  Mean number of arterial feeding arteries1.441.410.75
  Mean number of arterial pedicles embolized2.511.82 0.003
Embolic agent0.282
  n-BCA8170151
  Onyx628
  Coils022
  PVA336
Preoperative mRS (%) 0.000003
  0–2133 (100)101 (80.8)234
  3015 (12.0)15
  406 (4.8)6
  503 (2.4)3
  6000
  • *Statistical significance defined as p<0.05.

  • AVM, arteriovenous malformation; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; n-BCA, n-butyl cyanoacrylate; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol.